One of the main theories of motivating people is: 1. Value – Percept Theory; 2. McClelland’s Need Achievement Theory; 3. Porter-Lawler model; 4. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; 5. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory/Motivator-Hygiene; 6. Equity theory; 7. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory; 8. McGregor’s X and Y Theories.
Theories Of Motivation
Motivational theories differ from content theories to process theories. In short, a content theory demonstrates the concept of motivation while the process theory describes the mechanisms of motivation. Many theories of psychology and cognitive science also have implications for motivation and show how the perception of yourself and our surroundings influence behavior. The study explains how a particular mental construct affects the ability of one to achieve his or her goals. Motivational theory is also grouped according to human endeavors, and it is applied.
Tell Me The Psychology Of Motivation?
Motivation psychopathologists try to illustrate how motivation varies from person to person or at different periods in their life. Psychological motivations are designed to explain why and where it happens. The psychology of motivation was developed through a variety of different types of analysis. Cognitive analysis, behavioral anticipation and affective devices are used to analyze motivation by analyzing an expected outcome. Motivation psychology relates to the way biological psychological factors affect motivation.
The various approaches they employed led them to several theories concerning motivation. This list is outlined briefly.
1. Value – Percept Theory
People’s values determine whether their employees are satisfied in their workplace as employees have different values and based on this model they have a high satisfaction level. In value and perception theory it is believed that the difference in expectation from the outcome can cause dissatisfaction in the workplace based upon how much importance the job has on a person (Anderson Ones Sinangil – Viswesvaran 2001)
There could be some potential problems with the theory – the potential relation between what one wants and what one thinks is important. This concept is theoretical, but hardly differentiated.
2. McClelland’s Need Achievement Theory
The needs achievement theory of McClelland postulates that some individuals are more interested in personal achievements than rewarding themselves for their achievements. The theory applies easily in educational settings and explains why some teachers achieve higher in spite of obstacles they faces: they aim at their goals and they achieve them. The ERG theory is related to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and reduced to two categories: Specifically relatedness was esteem/socially required then growth was (self-actualization), and existence was (real life).
3. Porter-Lawler Model
The Theory of Motivation includes broader and complete aspects of motivational theory. It shows details on how fibers exist between job performance and attitudes, which define managers very well. The model is also about the assumptions that humans make about their behavior. The deductions in the Model assume individuals’ behaviour is influenced by both the external influences and rational, and they can make a decision about their behavior with different goals. Eventually the person decides between alternate behaviors. Theories of motivations.
4. Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs
Smith & Cronje (1992) argue that Maslow’s method relies on a belief that people have a desire for increasing what is important and their need is prioritized in line with their importance. Content theory of employment satisfaction originates from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs based on workers’ requirements. Based upon basic physical, psychological, social and biological needs of humans Maslow developed the five-level theory which placed individual needs into different categories and prioritized their achievement.
5. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory/Motivator-Hygiene
A theory called Motivator Hygiene by Herzberg came about from a survey by accountants and engineers on why people feel good about their jobs (Saif and al., 2012). In a report on ‘satisfaction‘, Herzberg said five characteristics in work bring satisfaction, namely achievement recognition, jobs, responsibility and advancement. On the other hand, he identified institution politics, the management strategy, and salaries, relations and work conditions as factors that can discourage employee morale.
6. Equity Theory
Process theory explains the process behind achieving happiness rather than how the motivation is caused. Equity theories postulate workers will weigh input on the job against the output they receive. The idea of satisfaction as an individual’s contribution and output is similar to that of Naeed and colleagues. According to the theories employed by employers that feel their jobs produce more than their outputs, they are satisfied. Certain things affect employees’ views of their job.
7. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
The Values Expectations thesis says that behavior depends on choices which can be prioritized. It aims to provide a source of satisfaction for employees while minimizing dissatisfaction. Performance determines individual factors like personality or skill. In addition this theory explains whether performance motivation and effort are independent of individual motivation and variables valence, instrumentality and expectancy verify this. Higher efforts means better performance.
8. McGregor’s X And Y Theories
A McGregor model (1960), “Theory X and Y”, classified workers into 2 groups on the basis of 2 sets of assumptions. The theory X assumptions negatively viewed the people, preferring to be directed and avoid responsibility. The Y hypothesis focuses on opposite views: mental and physical input in a workplace is equal and comparable to rest or play.
Process Theories Of Motivation
Process theories such as Skinner’s reinforcement theories, Victor Vroom’s expectancy theories, Adamss equity theory, & Lockes’ goal-set theory aimed at explaining why motivation is occurring.
Currently the most widely used motivational theory is reinforcement theory that focuses on the consequences in humans behavior for influencing behavior. Based on Skinners Operating conditioning theory, positive reinforcement is defined in a way that increases the chance of desired behavior repetition. Positive reinforcements were differentiated from negative reinforcement and punishment, when the former gave someone just what they wanted for the desired behavior, and the latter tried to prevent undesirable behavior through inciting unwanted consequences.
Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory
In conclusion Locke and Latham (2003) goal setting theories a comprehensive model for motivation argues that goals play a central role in motivation. Possibly the widely used goal-setting theory emphasizes goal specificity difficulties and acceptance and provides guidelines on the incorporation in incentive program and management by goals methods in many fields. The key to achieving optimum goals is that the goal-setting method has several articles that cover Lockes theory and its numerous applications.
Adams’ Equity Theory Of Motivation
According to a popular Social Exchange Theory (1965), Adams said that when treated equitably we are motivated to work hard. It suggests we can compare contribution amounts to the reward we get and to what people receive for a certain amount. Although equity is crucial to motivating a person, it doesn’t consider individual needs and personality factors that can impact perception of injustice.